Stand Your Ground laws and miscarriages of justice

By John Roman and Mitch Downey :: March 29th, 2012

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By any measure, the shooting of Trayvon Martin by George Zimmerman was a tragedy. As has been widely reported, George Zimmerman was monitoring his community in an unofficial neighborhood watch role and spotted the teenaged Martin walking through the Sanford, Florida streets. Zimmerman found Martin to be suspicious and the altercation that ensued left Martin dead.

From this incident, important questions have been raised about “Stand Your Ground” (SYG) laws in place in Florida and 28 other states. In all states, private citizens have the right to use lethal force in their homes in self-defense. SYG laws extend that right to public places, such as the Sanford streets. And, these laws transfer the fact finding about whether the homicide was justifiable from a jury to law enforcement. That is, in most states without these laws, a jury must determine that the homicide was a justifiable use of lethal force in self-defense. In SYG states—including Florida—the shooter cannot be arrested unless law enforcement finds probable cause the shooting was unlawful.

That moves this crucial decision from the courtroom to the street and tilts the odds in favor of the shooter. Thus, the Trayvon Martin case provides ample evidence that SYG laws weaken justice.

While we cannot know for certain what happened in Sanford, we can look at years of homicide data to determine where the burden of proof should lie in these types of homicide cases. If there are types of homicide where shootings are often justified, SYG laws are reasonable. However, if there are few circumstances where shootings are justified, those laws will impede justice.

We turned to the Supplemental Homicide Report (SHR) maintained by the FBI, which includes all reported homicides in the US, including justifiable homicides, to determine what types of cases—and how often—civilian use of deadly force was justified.

First, it is important to note that justifiable homicides are exceedingly rare. Between January 2005 and December 2009 there were more than 73,000 homicides in the United States but less than 2 percent (1,148) were found to be justifiable.

We combed the data to identify homicides which resemble the known facts from the Trayvon Martin case—cases in which there was a single victim and a single shooter (both of whom were civilians and strangers) and in which the victim was killed by a handgun.  We identified 4,650 of these cases in the SHR. Of these, just 10.9 percent (506) were ruled to be justifiable homicides.

However, we note that these numbers vary by whether a state is a SYG state. In SYG states, 13.6% of homicides under these circumstances are found to be justified. In non-SYG states, only 7.2 percent are justified.

We then looked for a scenario where homicides are justified more than half the time. It turns out that the scenario with the highest probability of being a justified homicide is much like the Martin case—a single, White civilian handgun shooter who is a stranger to (and older than) the Black victim. But even then, the shooting is found to be justified less than half the time.

Finally, we searched the SHR data for cases that matched all the facts of the Martin case (including ages and races). Out of 70,000 cases, we find that the homicides similar to the Martin case occurred just 23 times in five years. Of those 23 cases, only 9 (39 percent) were ruled to be justifiable homicides.
Since the overwhelming majority of shootings are not justified, it seems clear that SYG laws reduce the chance for justice by moving the burden of proof from the shooter to law enforcement.

In the Martin case, since Florida is a SYG state, the law strongly favors Zimmerman. It appears as though local law enforcement will not find probable cause that Zimmerman’s shooting was unjustified. By contrast, without the SYG law, it seems reasonable to predict that Zimmerman would not be able to demonstrate to a jury that the shooting was justified. Thus, history suggests Florida’s Stand Your Ground law will lead to a miscarriage of justice.

69Comments

  1. Data finds link between justifiable homicides and weak gun control laws | European Lands  ::  4:33 pm on April 5th, 2012:

    [...] Roman, who has written about stand-your-ground laws, believes that the rise in SYG is likely to lead to more miscarriages of justice. [...]

  2. Data finds link between justifiable homicides and weak gun control laws « « News in BriefsNews in Briefs  ::  4:46 pm on April 5th, 2012:

    [...] Roman, who has written about stand-your-ground laws, believes that the rise in SYG is likely to lead to more miscarriages of justice. [...]

  3. REPORTERS NOTEBOOK: RISE IN JUSTIFIABLE HOMICIDE LINKED TO WEAK GUN LAWS « dmnewsi  ::  8:07 pm on April 5th, 2012:

    [...] homicides go up.” Roman, who has written about stand-your-ground laws, believes that the rise in SYG is likely to lead to more miscarriages of justice. “It changes where the burden of proof lies. In a state without a SYG law, in a shooting, the [...]

  4. Stand Your Ground Laws Increase Murders, Economists Say | Care2 Causes  ::  2:02 pm on July 5th, 2012:

    [...] findings are corroborated by other criminological experts, who note that justifiable homicide is still exceedingly rare, even in SYG states. Others, though, aren’t so credulous. There is considerable variation in [...]

  5. MetroTrends Week in Review March 31  ::  4:18 pm on July 30th, 2012:

    [...] Roman and Mitch Downey assemble key facts on homicides to show that Stand Your Ground laws, like Florida’s, likely lead to miscarriages of [...]

  6. Stand Your Ground Laws and Racial Disparities  ::  8:28 am on August 8th, 2012:

    [...] couple of months ago my colleague Mitch Downey and I wrote about how Stand Your Ground (SYG) laws distort the justice system: in states with SYG laws, homicides are twice as likely to be deemed “justified.” In the [...]

  7. Critical Mass Progress | CI: Standing Up to “Stand Your Ground”  ::  7:01 pm on December 5th, 2012:

    [...] Trayvon Martin and Jordan Davis cases have suggested : the killings of black people by whites were more likely to be considered justified than the killings of white people by blacks. This was the case even before Stand Your Ground [...]

  8. Stand Your Ground laws and racial bias  ::  1:26 pm on June 5th, 2013:

    [...] a firearm was used) in most homicides. Analyzing these data, I found that SYG laws change how often shootings are ruled to be justified and that they are associated with racial disparities in justifiable homicide [...]

  9. George Zimmerman, Trayvon Martin, and Racial Bias in 'Justifiable Homicide' Trials -  ::  12:40 am on July 14th, 2013:

    [...] MetroTrends, John Roman and Mitchell Downey report their analysis of 4,650 FBI records of homicides in which a [...]

  10. Jesse Locke  ::  1:45 am on July 14th, 2013:

    “We combed the data to identify homicides which resemble the known facts from the Trayvon Martin case—cases in which there was a single victim and a single shooter (both of whom were civilians and strangers) and in which the victim was killed by a handgun.  We identified 4,650 of these cases in the SHR. Of these, just 10.9 percent (506) were ruled to be justifiable homicides.”

    Doesn’t that mean that many of the remaining 4,144 murder victims may have survived if they had been armed and therefore increased the number justifiable homicides?

    “In the Martin case, since Florida is a SYG state, the law strongly favors Zimmerman. It appears as though local law enforcement will not find probable cause that Zimmerman’s shooting was unjustified. By contrast, without the SYG law, it seems reasonable to predict that Zimmerman would not be able to demonstrate to a jury that the shooting was justified. Thus, history suggests Florida’s Stand Your Ground law will lead to a miscarriage of justice.”

    How in the world could you come to this conclusion in March of 2012? The supposed evidence in the media then supported Zimmerman but so much was still unknown. In the end he rather easily met the burden of a self-defense case without using SYG.

  11. Der Fall Trayvon Martin » UrbanFreak  ::  5:35 am on July 14th, 2013:

    [...] der Studie ist, dass, zumindest in den Staaten mit dem „Stand your Ground“ Gesetz, ist es wesentlich wahrscheinlicher freigesprochen zu werden, wenn man als Weißer einen Schwarzen umbringt als [...]

  12. Behind the Defense of Justifiable Homicide | Convergence of Relevant Stuff  ::  1:02 pm on July 14th, 2013:

    [...] MetroTrends, John Roman and Mitchell Downey report their analysis of 4,650 FBI records of homicides in which a [...]

  13. “Stand Your Ground” Increases Racial Bias  ::  1:13 pm on July 14th, 2013:

    [...] MetroTrends Blog, John Roman and Mitchell Downey report their analysis of  4,650 FBI records of homicides in which [...]

  14. The Trayvon Martin Case – Page 259 – Playa del Carmen, Mexico forum  ::  5:02 pm on July 14th, 2013:

    [...] Within the link is an explanation of the stats used in the study: Trayvon Martin and Stand Your Ground Laws [...]

  15. Race, justice and Trayvon Martin — MSNBC  ::  12:02 am on July 15th, 2013:

    [...] Florida, with controversial “Stand Your Ground” laws (see, e.g, reporting by Frontline, the Urban Institute, and the Tampa Bay [...]

  16. Race, justice and Trayvon Martin | In Baton Rouge Area  ::  3:39 am on July 15th, 2013:

    [...] Florida, with controversial “Stand Your Ground” laws (see, e.g, reporting by Frontline, the Urban Institute, and the Tampa Bay [...]

  17. Does Strengthening Self-Defense Law Deter Crime or Escalate Violence? Evidence from Castle Doctrine – Journalist's Resource: Research for Reporting, from Harvard Shorenstein Center  ::  10:31 am on July 15th, 2013:

    [...] Another 2012 paper, from researchers at Georgia State University, draws similar conclusions; its findings “raise serious doubts against the argument that Stand Your Ground laws make America safer.” Some statistical analysis has found that stand your ground laws produce unequal outcomes in trial contexts, with a finding of “justifiable homicide” more likely in the case of a white-on-black killing, according to the Urban Institute. [...]

  18. Justice for Trayvon? Repeal ALEC's 'Stand Your Ground'  ::  11:22 am on July 15th, 2013:

    [...] white person went free 59 percent of the time. Other studies have shown that Stand Your Ground is more likely to applied in cases of white-on-black [...]

  19. Justice for Trayvon? Repeal ALEC's 'Stand Your Ground' – MGx – Musings, Essays & Ballads | MGx – Musings, Essays & Ballads  ::  12:06 pm on July 15th, 2013:

    [...] went free 59 percent of the time. Other studies have shown that Stand Your Ground is&bbsp;more likely to applied in cases of white-on-black [...]

  20. License to Kill | The Weekly Sift  ::  1:21 pm on July 15th, 2013:

    [...] much as I suspect the overall impression created by the graph is correct — background story here — the mathematician in me has to point out that the white-on-black color breakdown can't be right. [...]

  21. Florida Democrat Renews Call For ‘Stand Your Ground’ Repeal | Political Ration  ::  2:09 pm on July 15th, 2013:

    [...] went free 59 percent of the time. Other studies have shown that “Stand Your Ground” is more likely to be applied in cases of white-on-black crime, and in May, the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights launched an [...]

  22. Is U.S. justice on trial? | الخبر.نت|al5br.net  ::  4:26 pm on July 15th, 2013:

    [...] There will be much debate in the coming days about whether the not guilty verdict in the Zimmerman self-defense trial was the right or wrong outcome. Experts will analyze the strategy, tactics and performance of the prosecutors and the defense attorneys, seeking to explain it. This, however, will miss the bigger and more important point: In truth, when black boys and men are killed by non-blacks, more often than not, justice will not be served. [...]

  23. Is U.S. justice on trial? | Rene Kubitza News  ::  4:39 pm on July 15th, 2013:

    [...] Editor’s note: Nicole Austin-Hillery is the Director and Counsel of the Washington Office of the Brennan Center for Justice at New York University School of Law.(CNN) — In the iconic film, “To Kill a Mockingbird,” Atticus Finch, a white lawyer defending a black man accused of attempting to rape a white woman in the deep South, is delivering his closing argument to an all-white-male jury: “In this country, our courts are the great levelers … in our courts, all men are created equal,” he says.Like the fictional defendant in the film, black America knows all too well that in this country, the promise of equal justice for all is often a hollow one. That is never more true than in cases where a black man or boy is killed by a non-black.There will be much debate in the coming days about whether the not guilty verdict in the Zimmerman self-defense trial was the right or wrong outcome. Experts will analyze the strategy, tactics and performance of the prosecutors and the defense attorneys, seeking to explain it. This, however, will miss the bigger and more important point: In truth, when black boys and men are killed by non-blacks, more often than not, justice will not be served. [...]

  24. Florida Democrat Renews Call For ‘Stand Your Ground’ Repeal | Both Sides Clash  ::  5:17 pm on July 15th, 2013:

    [...] went free 59 percent of the time. Other studies have shown that “Stand Your Ground” is more likely to be applied in cases of white-on-black crime, and in May, the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights launched an [...]

  25. "Stand Your Ground" Needs Review » Resist the Privatization of America  ::  5:34 pm on July 15th, 2013:

    [...] the controversy over such laws is the racial bias in their application. An analysis of FBI crime data released last year by the Urban Institute found that in homicides resembling the Martin case, where [...]

  26. Should blacks trust U.S. justice? | World News Line  ::  6:03 pm on July 15th, 2013:

    [...] There will be much debate in the coming days about whether the not guilty verdict in the Zimmerman self-defense trial was the right or wrong outcome. Experts will analyze the strategy, tactics and performance of the prosecutors and the defense attorneys, seeking to explain it. This, however, will miss the bigger and more important point: In truth, when black boys and men are killed by non-blacks, more often than not, justice will not be served. [...]

  27. Is U.S. justice on trial? – Breaking News, Latest News and Current News from 7u8.net. Breaking news and video. Latest Current News: U.S., World, Entertainment, Health  ::  6:07 pm on July 15th, 2013:

    [...] There will be much debate in the coming days about whether the not guilty verdict in the Zimmerman self-defense trial was the right or wrong outcome. Experts will analyze the strategy, tactics and performance of the prosecutors and the defense attorneys, seeking to explain it. This, however, will miss the bigger and more important point: In truth, when black boys and men are killed by non-blacks, more often than not, justice will not be served. [...]

  28. Should blacks trust U.S. justice? | The Worthington Post  ::  7:32 pm on July 15th, 2013:

    [...] There will be much debate in the coming days about whether the not guilty verdict in the Zimmerman self-defense trial was the right or wrong outcome. Experts will analyze the strategy, tactics and performance of the prosecutors and the defense attorneys, seeking to explain it. This, however, will miss the bigger and more important point: In truth, when black boys and men are killed by non-blacks, more often than not, justice will not be served. [...]

  29. Opinion: Why should blacks trust U.S. justice? | Uni-za.com site for your Life.  ::  8:03 pm on July 15th, 2013:

    [...] There will be many discuss in a entrance days about either a not guilty outcome in a Zimmerman self-defense conference was a right or wrong outcome. Experts will investigate a strategy, strategy and opening of a prosecutors and a invulnerability attorneys, seeking to explain it. This, however, will skip a bigger and some-more critical point: In truth, when black boys and group are killed by non-blacks, more mostly than not, probity will not be served. [...]

  30. Should blacks trust U.S. justice? | Uni-za.com site for your Life.  ::  8:03 pm on July 15th, 2013:

    [...] There will be many discuss in a entrance days about either a not guilty outcome in a Zimmerman self-defense conference was a right or wrong outcome. Experts will investigate a strategy, strategy and opening of a prosecutors and a invulnerability attorneys, seeking to explain it. This, however, will skip a bigger and some-more critical point: In truth, when black boys and group are killed by non-blacks, more mostly than not, probity will not be served. [...]

  31. I am Not Trayvon Martin :: racismreview.com  ::  8:05 pm on July 15th, 2013:

    [...] that have Stand Your Ground laws, shootings are more likely to be legally considered justified. More insidiously, Roman and Downy found that the shooting scenarios that have the highest likelihood… This racial disparity is not surprising to social scientists who study race, the pattern of racial [...]

  32. Should blacks trust U.S. justice? – The Peoples 411 : The Peoples 411  ::  11:10 pm on July 15th, 2013:

    [...] There will be much discuss in the entrance days about either the not guilty outcome in the Zimmerman self-defense conference was the right or wrong outcome. Experts will investigate the strategy, strategy and opening of the prosecutors and the invulnerability attorneys, seeking to explain it. This, however, will skip the bigger and more critical point: In truth, when black boys and group are killed by non-blacks, more mostly than not, probity will not b… [...]

  33. Lessons from Zimmerman trial | my blog  ::  5:29 pm on July 16th, 2013:

    [...] Like the fictional defendant in the film, black America knows all too well that in this country, the promise of equal justice for all is often a hollow one. When black boys and men are killed by non-blacks, more often than not, justice will not be served. [...]

  34. Lessons from Zimmerman trial | World News Line  ::  7:33 pm on July 16th, 2013:

    [...] Like the fictional defendant in the film, black America knows all too well that in this country, the promise of equal justice for all is often a hollow one. When black boys and men are killed by non-blacks, more often than not, justice will not be served. [...]

  35. Voices: Lessons from Zimmerman trial – The Peoples 411 : The Peoples 411  ::  11:24 pm on July 16th, 2013:

    [...] Like the illusory suspect in the film, black America knows all too well that in this country, the guarantee of equal probity for all is mostly a vale one. When black boys and organisation are killed by non-blacks, more mostly than not, probity will not b… [...]

  36. Lessons from Zimmerman trial – The Peoples 411 : The Peoples 411  ::  11:25 pm on July 16th, 2013:

    [...] Like the illusory suspect in the film, black America knows all too well that in this country, the guarantee of equal probity for all is mostly a vale one. When black boys and organisation are killed by non-blacks, more mostly than not, probity will not b… [...]

  37. Zimmerman trial: Opinion wrap | Rene Kubitza News  ::  12:07 am on July 17th, 2013:

    [...] Like the fictional defendant in the film, black America knows all too well that in this country, the promise of equal justice for all is often a hollow one. When black boys and men are killed by non-blacks, more often than not, justice will not be served. [...]

  38. Zimmerman trial: Opinion wrap | الخبر.نت|al5br.net  ::  12:26 am on July 17th, 2013:

    [...] Like the fictional defendant in the film, black America knows all too well that in this country, the promise of equal justice for all is often a hollow one. When black boys and men are killed by non-blacks, more often than not, justice will not be served. [...]

  39. News | Ripple's Web » Zimmerman trial: Opinion wrap  ::  4:58 am on July 17th, 2013:

    [...] Like the fictional defendant in the film, black America knows all too well that in this country, the promise of equal justice for all is often a hollow one. When black boys and men are killed by non-blacks, more often than not, justice will not be served. [...]

  40. Liberal Bias – White people murdering black people is usually justified  ::  11:22 am on July 17th, 2013:

    [...] to a review of homicide cases by John Roman, juries are 11 times more likely to call a murder “justified” when a [...]

  41. George Zimmerman and Race in America  ::  2:18 pm on July 17th, 2013:

    [...] At MetroTrends, John Roman and Mitchell Downey report their analysis of 4,650 FBI records of homicides in which a person killed a stranger with a handgun. They conclude that stand your ground “tilts the odds in favor of the shooter.”  In SYG states, 13.6% of homicides were ruled justifiable; in non-SYG states, only 7.2% were deemed such.  This is strong evidence that rulings of justifiable homicide are more likely under stand your ground. [...]

  42. If you are looking for empathy | Verse and Memoir  ::  6:03 pm on July 18th, 2013:

    [...] of our own children. America allowed juveniles to receive the death penalty until 2005 and with Stand Your Ground Laws[2] children can be followed and executed in 2013.  Minorities are disproportionately targeted in [...]

  43. How to Seem Racist  ::  12:36 pm on July 19th, 2013:

    [...] to be justified in our legal system. Ever. This is according to data compiled by the FBI in their Supplemental Homicide Report. Sarah Childress at Frontline writes, “Whites who kill blacks in Stand Your Ground states are far [...]

  44. » Ideology: Oppressed Classes and Dehumanization – The Leather Bound Journal  ::  9:18 pm on July 19th, 2013:

    [...] the burden of proof to demonstrate that a killing wasn’t done in self-defense.  Given the low rate of homicides considered justified, they don’t seem to have any problem doing this).  However, I won’t spend much time on [...]

  45. How to Seem Racist | UK Progressive  ::  1:01 am on July 20th, 2013:

    [...] to be justified in our legal system. Ever. This is according to data compiled by the FBI in their Supplemental Homicide Report. Sarah Childress at Frontline writes, “Whites who kill blacks in Stand Your Ground states are far [...]

  46. Are ‘Stand Your Ground’ laws racist?  ::  8:33 am on July 20th, 2013:

    [...] more likely to be found justified in killing a black person in SYG states than in non-SYG states (source). Statistical Myths: Since blacks claim SYG defenses at a disproportionately higher rate than [...]

  47. Trayvon Martin : Murdered By The NRA | Gun Control Now USA  ::  9:26 am on July 21st, 2013:

    [...] white person went free 59 percent of the time. Other studies have shown that Stand Your Ground is more likely to be applied in cases of white-on-black crime, and in May, the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights launched an [...]

  48. These laws stand for racism | Social Awareness  ::  12:58 pm on July 22nd, 2013:

    [...] In 2012, John Roman, a senior analyst at Urban Institute’s Justice Policy Center, examined FBI data for 43,500 homicides from 2005 to 2009. When he narrowed the pool to incidents of “justified” killings involving a single shooter and single victim who didn’t know each other–about 5,000 of the cases–Roman found that killings of Black people by whites were far more likely to be considered justified than killings of …. [...]

  49. A Slice for My Toddler, a Reality Check for Me « PostBourgie  ::  10:18 am on July 23rd, 2013:

    [...] in point, from one of the big news stories of the day: A new study by the Urban Institute on “Stand Your Ground” laws — now infamous after the killing of Trayvon Martin [...]

  50. IF YOU’RE Black, you’re guilty, and if you’re white, you’re defending yourself. That’s the racist reality of the various “Stand Your Ground” laws in states across the U.S | Moorbey'z Blog  ::  12:27 pm on July 23rd, 2013:

    [...] victim who didn’t know each other–about 5,000 of the cases–Roman found that killings of Black people by whites were far more likely to be considered justified than killings of … [1]. When PBS’s Frontline asked Roman to make the comparison between states with and without [...]

  51. George Zimmerman vs. Marissa Alexander: Is Stand Your Ground racially biased? — MSNBC  ::  5:18 pm on July 23rd, 2013:

    [...] study conducted last year by John Roman of the Urban Institute, using FBI data on justifiable homicides [...]

  52. Wednesday’s Potpourri: ALL About Race | The ObamaCrat.Com™  ::  2:17 pm on July 24th, 2013:

    [...] A study conducted last year by John Roman of the Urban Institute, using FBI data on justifiable homicides from 2005 to 2009, yielded a similar result. A brief follow-up study done by Roman on behalf of PBS Frontline found that in Stand Your Ground states, white-on-black homicides are 354% more likely to be deemed justifiable than white-on-white homicides. In non-Stand-Your-Ground states, that figure declined to “only” 250%. [...]

  53. ¿QUÉ? ¿NO QUE TODOS ÉRAMOS IGUALES? | DEDOMEDIO EL PLACER ES TUYO  ::  5:16 pm on July 24th, 2013:

    [...] diferentes casos. De acuerdo a un análisis realizado por  John Roman y Mitchell Downey en el blog MetroTrends, si un hombre blanco que cuenta con un arma mata a un extraño que es negro, la posibilidad de que [...]

  54. At March on Washington, ALEC Is Exposed | Back on the Block  ::  9:39 am on August 29th, 2013:

    [...] legislation subsequently became law in at least two dozen states. The Stand Your Ground defense is more likely to be applied in cases of white-on-black killings than when the races are [...]

  55. Whites Who Kill Blacks Under ‘Stand Your Ground’ 354 Percent More Likely to Be Acquitted | The Hinterland Gazette  ::  1:10 pm on September 2nd, 2013:

    [...] bias? John Roman, a senior fellow at the Urban Institute’s Justice Policy Center, recently conducted a study examining racial disparity using FBI data on 43,500 homicides from 2005 to 2009, the most recent years for which data was [...]

  56. HERIDO Y DESARMADO (PERO AFROAMERICANO) | DEDOMEDIO EL PLACER ES TUYO  ::  5:20 pm on September 18th, 2013:

    [...] se señala en el blog MetroTrends, si un hombre blanco y armado mata a un extraño que es negro, las posibilidades de que el [...]

  57. How Many More Black Boys Have to Die?  ::  3:22 am on October 4th, 2013:

    [...] What that essentially means is free rein for gun owners to carry their weapons into any situation, shoot and later claim to have felt threatened even in the case of killing someone. This Wild West mentality has proven advantageous for older white gun users like Dunn, who have a greater chance than others of proving homicide justifiable according to studies like this one. [...]

  58. HOW MAN MORE BLACK BOYS HAVE TO DIE ? | ChildreninShadow.wordpress.com  ::  10:10 am on October 4th, 2013:

    [...] What that essentially means is free rein for gun owners to carry their weapons into any situation, shoot and later claim to have felt threatened even in the case of killing someone. This Wild West mentality has proven advantageous for older white gun users like Dunn, who have a greater chance than others of proving homicide justifiable according to studies like this one. [...]

  59. Black Boys: The Death Toll Rises |  ::  10:09 am on October 5th, 2013:

    [...] What that essentially means is free rein for gun owners to carry their weapons into any situation, shoot and later claim to have felt threatened even in the case of killing someone. This Wild West mentality has proven advantageous for older white gun users like Dunn, who have a greater chance than others of proving homicide justifiable according to studies like this one. [...]

  60. » Another Killer Using ‘Stand Your Ground’ to Defend Shooting a Black Teenage Boy Mutiny Radio  ::  1:54 pm on October 11th, 2013:

    [...] What that essentially means is free rein for gun owners to carry their weapons into any situation, shoot and later claim to have felt threatened even in the case of killing someone. This Wild West mentality has proven advantageous for older white gun users like Dunn, who have a greater chance than others of proving homicide justifiable according to studies like this one. [...]

  61. Mistrial on Murder Charge in Michael Dunn Trial Sad Reminder of Stand Your Ground | Hinterland Gazette  ::  9:50 am on February 16th, 2014:

    [...] Roman, a senior fellow at the Urban Institute’s Justice Policy Center, recently conducted a study examining racial disparity using FBI data on 43,500 homicides from 2005 to 2009, the most recent years for which data was [...]

  62. Today is Jordan Davis birthday | SACRATOMATOVILLE POST  ::  6:05 pm on February 16th, 2014:

    [...] to study the nation’s urban problems  found that the killings of black people by whites were more likely to be considered justified than the killings of white people by [...]

  63. Stand Your Ground: Understanding the Law of Self Defense  ::  9:12 pm on March 10th, 2014:

    [...] This from The Urban Institute: [...]

  64. Justice or Racial Bias? | | No | Stand Your Ground  ::  6:20 pm on March 31st, 2014:

    [...] begin, a study found that homicides in states that have Stand Your Ground laws are more likely to find those [...]

  65. ​Fetal ‘Stand Your Ground’ bill advances in South Carolina, spurs controversy | Liberate Greece  ::  10:13 pm on April 25th, 2014:

    [...] disparities in the criminal justice system. The Urban Institute’s Justice Policy Center has found that white-on-black homicide is 354 percent more likely to be justified in court than [...]

  66. ​Fetal 'Stand Your Ground' bill advances in South Carolina, spurs controversy – News4c.com  ::  11:16 pm on April 25th, 2014:

    [...] disparities in the criminal justice system. The Urban Institute’s Justice Policy Center has found that white-on-black homicide is 354 percent more likely to be justified in court than [...]

  67. ​Fetal 'Stand Your Ground' bill advances in South Carolina, spurs controversy – Israel News  ::  11:46 pm on April 25th, 2014:

    [...] disparities in the criminal justice system. The Urban Institute’s Justice Policy Center has found that white-on-black homicide is 354 percent more likely to be justified in court than [...]

  68. ​Fetal 'Stand Your Ground' bill advances in South Carolina, spurs controversy | Mushing News  ::  8:02 am on April 26th, 2014:

    [...] disparities in the criminal justice system. The Urban Institute’s Justice Policy Center has found that white-on-black homicide is 354 percent more likely to be justified in court than [...]

  69. ​Fetal ‘Stand Your Ground’ bill advances in South Carolina, spurs controversy | South Carolina News Feed  ::  3:09 pm on April 26th, 2014:

    [...] racial disparities in a rapist probity system. The Urban Institute’s Justice Policy Center has found that white-on-black carnage is 354 percent some-more expected to be fit in justice than [...]